Pakistan has a continental climate and experiences extreme fluctuations in temperature both seasonally and daily due to variations in elevation across the country.
Broadly speaking, Pakistan is a hot country. This is especially true for the central plains, with the high temperature worsened by a hot wind known as the Loo that blows through during summer. Although southern coastal areas are still stiflingly hot, the temperature is moderated and cooled by sea breezes. On the other hand, the high altitudes of the mountainous northern region are prone to ice and sub-zero temperatures.
The length and onset of the seasons can vary throughout the country, but the seasons generally consist of a cool and dry winter from December to February, a dry and hot spring from March to May, a summer monsoon period from June to September, and a retreating monsoon season beginning in October.
Apart from monsoons, other natural phenomena to be aware of are tropical storms and violent dust storms which are prone to occur in summer. Heat stroke and dehydration are a concern, especially for expats living in the central regions of Pakistan and those who are used to cooler climates. Expats should ensure they stay hydrated by drinking bottled water, and should try to avoid being outside during the hottest hours of the day.